Information security starts with ... understanding the peculiarities of human psychology and those ways and tools that form the features of perception and processing of data received from the senses.
Simply put, before you are outraged by the spread of fakes or complain about the high level of public confidence in clearly unreliable information, you need to start with the upbringing and education of children and change something in them. And to change something about increasing the criticality of thinking, you need to understand how and when the child learns to understand and respond to the events that are happening around it.
The first period of time that you need to pay attention to is 0-2 years of life, when the child does not see very well (more precisely, differentiates what he sees), and is forced to focus more on tactile and auditory sensations. At this time, parents would need to speak (and not only with the child) the same language. Otherwise, constantly hearing words from different languages or, even worse, language groups, the child can and will learn languages better in the future, but the trouble is: he will always subconsciously confuse and replace concepts from different languages. As a result, by the end of her life, she will have difficulties with prompt understanding of what she has heard / read, and at the subconscious level. And it will be almost impossible to solve this problem with a "failure in the matrix", since even it is almost impossible for a person to realize the reason for such a feature of perception. So, such an adult will most likely find it easier and more convenient to perceive information in pictures and through a video sequence with a minimum number of words.
The second period of time that you need to pay attention to is the period from 2 to 5 years, when the child forms a functional idea of the world around him and is formed precisely as Homo Sapiens. It is at this time that the child learns to use all the tools at hand and learns their purpose. She trains her imagination and faces unconscious fears, which she tries to classify to the best of her understanding. Accordingly, it is during these years that the child most vividly and least critically perceives the world around him. She believes in almost everything and any "cognitive bookmarks" received at this age in the form of vivid impressions / prohibitions / fears can remain with her for the rest of her life. Just like the ability to find different uses for things. But ... only if you have a developed imagination. And imagination develops when the child is not given ready-made answers, but looks for these answers together with him! No, to answer the question "For what?", "Why?"- it is necessary. But here is the answer to the question "how?" and "what do they do about it?"- it is advisable to look for answers together with the child. If you give them as bright and simple answers as possible (or even eliminate them from this process by providing the child with gadgets with a function and displaying the information received), then they will never learn to search for them themselves or imagine them. So, in adulthood, she will be ready to take any nonsense for the truth, if only it is beautifully and attractively designed.
I repeat, no Internet provides answers to questions, it only gives those answers to search queries that are most commercialized / have the highest priority or rating. As a result, the child learns not to look for answers to questions (since he is not able to assess their truthfulness), but acquires the skill of handling a gadget. This, of course, is also not bad, but ... here a new problem arises-having received such a skill, the child gains confidence that "they are given an answer". As a result, an adult growing out of such a child can simply be deceived by slipping him any nonsense in the search results in the first positions. Critical thinking is formed already after the search skill, which means that it will often play a secondary role in evaluating what is received.
The third period of time that you need to pay attention to is the years from 5 to 11/12. It is at this time that the cognitive sphere is formed and the ability to critically perceive reality is trained.
If by the age of 11/12 a child has not learned to perceive cause-and-effect relationships and has not mastered the basics of analysis and synthesis, then by the end of his life he will have a so-called "Magic consciousness", in which statements such as "dry water", "fat-free oil", "honest thief" will be perceived as normal, and an attempt to fly without wings, throwing himself from a high-rise or picking at the socket with his fingers-do not cause any internal contradiction. Such adults will never learn to plan their actions, no matter how long they live, because they are not able to connect the result with previous actions. They are the main target of any fake: from false advertising to state political propaganda. It is from such adults that ideal ideological suicide bombers and fanatics of all stripes and types turn out. Yes, and the adherents of "charged water", "miraculous healing", "Flat Earth" are also quite good.
The fourth period of time that you need to pay attention to is the so - called puberty or puberty. This period can last quite a long time, and it does not start at the same time. But, most often, starting at 11/12 years ends by 16/18.
In order not to repeat numerous works on the psychology of adolescents, I will put only a few accents:
- at this age, everything that brings sensual pleasure is perceived as true, and what causes tension and dissatisfaction is perceived as a lie;
- the degree of trust in information obtained independently and / or from peers is much higher than in data from textbooks / obtained from adults;
- the search for "your place in life" leads to an aggravation of the "herd sense" and a sharp decrease in the manifestations of individuality. A teenager strives to be like everyone else, but convinces himself of his own exclusivity. This is mainly what most advertising for teenagers is designed for, for example;
- "detuning" from the older generation increases interest in those channels of obtaining information that adults "do not use". This means that it is through such channels that teenagers can "sell" any information: from the uselessness of education to the attractiveness of suicide;
- over the past half-century, the state policy of almost all so-called civilized countries has been aimed at extending puberty for as many years as possible: hence the increase in the civil qualification from 18 to 21 years, and 12-year secondary education, and 6+ year higher education, and the introduction of sexual education courses in the school curriculum ... along with maintaining legal prohibitions on early sexual activity. Since puberty is the most fertile period for misinformation and manipulation, since teenagers can already manage money, but they can't rationally assess what is happening. Artificial stretching of puberty leads to an increase in infantilism in society. Infantile behavior is the main reason for the effectiveness of fakes.
All of the above is not a ready-to-use manual. This is just a general periodization of how and when the process of perceiving and structuring information and learning how to use it begins and takes place. As well as a few words about how it can be applied.